About Us

Meet Our Staff

Dr. Rocco Casagrande

Dr. Rocco Casagrande began his public sector career as a U.N. weapons inspector in pre-war Iraq where he led the U.N.’s biological analysis laboratories. Today, as a founder and Managing Director of Gryphon Scientific, he is a widely respected thought leader on the risks and medical responses to naturally occurring infectious diseases as well as intentional CBRN events. Dr. Casagrande has provided intellectual leadership to dozens of CBRN defense projects for health and defense agencies. In one notable collaboration with DHS and CDC, he developed a methodology to incorporate risk in the choice of supplies in the Strategic National Stockpile, the nation’s largest repository of medicines available for a public health emergency. A life scientist, with a degree from Cornell in biology and chemistry and an MIT Ph.D. in biology, Dr. Casagrande has a particular interest in the benefits and threats of emerging biotechnologies–innovations that may have transformative effects on life sciences but raise considerable challenges for policy and governance. In one project, Dr. Casagrande and his team studied whether and how to regulate the synthetic DNA industry to minimize the risk that a terrorist group could synthesize and weaponize the genome of a dangerous viral or bacterial agent. To balance the positive, environmental, industrial and medical applications of the technology against the biosecurity risks, Dr Casagrande proposed voluntary guidelines for screening customers that have become standard industry practice. Similarly, Dr. Casagrande designed a study to address the risks and benefits of engineered influenza viruses after NIH imposed a moratorium on all research to make pathogens of pandemic potential more transmissible or pathogenic. Consistent with all of Dr. Casagrande’s work on important questions of science policy, a science advisor to NIH commented that the results established new boundaries on a complex set of questions.

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Ms. Joan Mullen

Joan Mullen is a founder and current Managing Partner of Gryphon Scientific. With an undergraduate degree in economics, Joan interrupted her law school plans to take a job at Abt Associates, then a young firm designed by Clark Abt to bring the analytic techniques of the defense industry into civilian public policy decision-making. Over the next 35 years, she held almost every position in the organization, ultimately heading all of the firm’s domestic public policy practices. Under her leadership, domestic research and consulting nearly doubled, moving to $100 million in 2001. Joan launched many new practice areas, including a group devoted to law and criminal justice issues, behavioral health, clinical trials and epidemiology, and homeland security. Throughout most of her tenure at Abt Associates, she continued to manage projects and to publish on issues related to sentencing and incarceration. Joan now leads many of Gryphon’s strategic planning and workforce development projects for biomedical, environmental, and human service organizations.

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Dr. Margaret Rush

Dr. Margaret Rush became a Partner of Gryphon Scientific in 2017 to recognize her important contributions to Gryphon’s public health mission. One branch of Dr. Rush’s work has involved curating and making complex scientific data accessible to researchers in drug discovery. As a Ph.D. student at Harvard (in Biological Sciences in Public Health) and later as a research scientist at the Broad Institute, Dr. Rush developed her expertise in small molecule drug discovery by identifying novel antimalarial compounds. Moving to Gryphon Scientific in 2010, she realized how little information useful for drug discovery comes from the large amounts of data on drug compounds generated every year but largely hidden in a smog of undifferentiated research papers. This led her to develop several scientific data curation projects to collect and organize chemical and biological data describing infectious diseases and potential therapeutics. In a large ongoing effort for NIAID she re-designed and curated a database on small molecule inhibitors of HIV, TB, and other opportunistic infections. In addition to designing and managing databases to inform analysis, Dr. Rush has also led complex analytic projects. She is an accomplished practitioner of Gryphon’s core skill in modeling the risks, consequences, and countermeasures for infectious disease outbreaks. Focusing on food safety and agricultural defense, she has developed models to investigate food contamination and to explore the consequences of outbreaks of Foot and Mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever, both significant animal health concerns. Adding interview-based data collection to her skill base, each of these models was underpinned, in part, by parameters based on interviews with a diverse range of government and industrial stakeholders. All of Dr. Rush’s projects also benefit from strong management. As a Partner of Gryphon Scientific, Dr. Rush plays a significant role in company operations and brings her notable skills in planning and management to all of her research projects as well.

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Dr. Kavita Berger

Dr. Kavita Berger began her career in science and security policy in 2005, when she joined the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), where she developed activities that engaged Washington-DC-based science policy and security experts on topics ranging from health security to biological weapons. These efforts (to conduct policy studies, symposia, public discussions, and similar outreach and engagement activities) provided opportunities for scientists to bring their knowledge and experience to current security policy dialogues and for the security policy community to better understand the broader implications of science and technology. Dr. Berger’s interest in looking between the lines of policy and practice led her to initiate two significant activities at AAAS, both of which have influenced her work at Gryphon Scientific. One activity was to promote dialogue between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and university officials to enhance their familiarity with each other, find common ground, and promote trust-building–all critical for preventing deliberately harmful incidents involving laboratory materials. The relationships she developed with university officials, security policy experts, and the FBI enabled her to conduct forward-looking studies, such as the 2014 evaluation of the security implications of big data in the life sciences. The second activity was to engage scientists across the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia to work together to prevent biosecurity threats. This effort was new to the cooperative threat reduction community and required different approaches for engagement. Her work in the MENA region promoted partnership and trust among U.S. and regional scientists to jointly reduce biological risks. The trust she built with regional leaders has persisted, allowing her to explore new opportunities for partnership with her regional colleagues. Dr. Berger came to Gryphon Scientific in 2015, where she is building new programs on international bioengagement and science policy. A genetics and molecular biologist by training, Dr. Berger has become a well-known and widely-respected voice in world-wide efforts to prevent the harmful use of biology.

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Dr. Jennifer Corbin

Dr. Jennifer Corbin is a biomedical scientist with primary interests in the areas of antibiotic misuse, and the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of disease. With a B.S. in microbiology from Iowa State University and a PhD in biomedical science from NYU’s School of Medicine, Dr. Corbin began her career at the clinical microbiology lab of Iowa State’s College of Veterinary Medicine. There she conducted a retrospective analysis of the link between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in animals. This research—as well as her position as a farm owner—led to her continuing interest in the connection between antibiotic use in livestock and consumer products, and antibiotic resistance in the human population. Joining Gryphon in 2007, she has worked on scores of projects to investigate the efficacy of medical countermeasures for the prevention and treatment of infectious disease. In many studies, she has focused on the behavioral issues that affect outcome such as partial vaccination and non-compliance with antibiotic regimens—a practice that contributes to antibiotic resistance. In other studies, she has modeled how the timing of administration of antibiotics and other medical countermeasures affect treatment outcome. Another of Dr. Corbin’s areas of interest is biosurveillance. In one notable project for DTRA, she developed a methodology for a crowd-sourced syndromic surveillance system that collected information directly from the public to identify disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods. In another, she assessed how factors that influence infectious disease transmission (such as travel and public health infrastructure) affect the introduction of disease into the U.S. Considered a subject matter expert in the prevention and treatment of biological disease, she is a co-author of a technical manual for DTRA describing current practices in disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. This project as well as her history of work on the science of human health has established Dr. Corbin as a leader in the field of biomedical science.

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Ms. Allison Mistry

Ms. Allison Mistry joined Gryphon Scientific in 2015, after six years in civil service at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. She has extensive expertise in the policies and practice of oversight of high risk research, including biosecurity, dual use, and gain of function research policy; consensus-driven decision making in biotechnology and biomedical sciences; and bioethical issues related to high-risk and global health research. An experienced evaluator of scientific and public health programs, Ms. Mistry enjoys developing metrics and indicators for novel and/or innovative initiatives and leading qualitative data collection efforts. Her recent interests include the implementation of community health partnerships, assessing community resilience to emergency or catastrophic events, and critical infrastructure protection. She also applies her background in clinical and environmental microbiology to the fields of global health and health security. During her time in government, Allison worked within the Office of Science Policy conducting analyses on the scientific workforce, collaborative practice, and biosecurity and biosafety policy. Prior to joining NIH, Ms. Mistry conducted evaluations and analyses as part of the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) and Abt Associates, Inc. Ms. Mistry holds an MS in Microbiology, an MA in Science and Technology Studies, and BAs in Biochemistry and Women’s Studies. Her laboratory research experience focused on the role of metal-reducing anaerobic bacteria in bioremediation.

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COL RET Robert Stephan

Colonel Bob Stephan (USAF, Retired) is the Executive Director at Gryphon Scientific. Prior to joining Gryphon, Colonel Stephan served as the Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. In this capacity, he was responsible for the Department’s efforts to catalog our critical infrastructures and key resources, develop the National Infrastructure Protection Plan and coordinate risk-based strategies and protective measures to secure our infrastructures from terrorist attack, as well as enable their timely restoration in the aftermath of natural disasters and other emergencies. His specific areas of focus included the following critical sectors: Transportation (including ports and maritime facilities), Communications, Energy, Dams, Information Technology, Critical Manufacturing, Chemical, Nuclear, Water, Banking and Finance, Food and Agriculture, Commercial Facilities, Government Facilities, Emergency Services, and Monuments and Icons. His efforts also included extensive partnership building and facilitating risk analysis, contingency/resiliency planning, risk mitigation, special security event and emergency response planning across a wide array of Federal, State, and local government, private sector, and international security partners. With the initial activation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2003, Colonel Stephan served as Special Assistant to the Secretary and Director of the Secretary’s Headquarters Operational Integration Staff. In this capacity, he was responsible for a wide range of activities that included headquarters-level interaction in the areas of strategic and operational planning, core mission integration, domestic incident management, and training and exercises. He also directed the Interagency Incident Management Group, integrating Department and interagency capabilities in response to domestic threats and incidents, and led the development of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and National Response Plan (NRP). Colonel Stephan held a variety of key operational and command positions in the joint special operations community during a 24-year Air Force career. During Operation Desert Storm, he deployed to Saudi Arabia as a joint battlestaff planner and mission commander supporting Joint Special Operations Task Force strategic interdiction operations in Iraq. As a commander of two Air Force Special Tactics Squadrons, Colonel Stephan organized, trained, and equipped forces for contingency operations in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Croatia, Liberia, Colombia, and Kosovo.

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Mr. Ken Stroech

Ken Stroech is a Senior Advisor and Project Manager at Gryphon Scientific with over 40 years of leadership, program management and subject matter expertise in homeland security, critical infrastructure protection and emergency management. Mr. Stroech has managed numerous high-profile, organizational, strategic and operational planning initiatives at the regional and national levels. He has extensive senior level experience in leading the start-up and management of several organizational components at the Department of Homeland Security, the White House Office of Homeland Security, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Prior to retiring from federal service, Mr. Stroech served in various senior leadership positions including the Deputy Chief of Staff in the Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection at the Department of Homeland Security, the Director for Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs at the White House Office of Homeland Security, and the Deputy Emergency Coordinator for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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Ms. Louise Sumner

For nearly a decade, Ms. Louise Sumner has supported federal agencies on projects to improve public health, with a particular interest in biosurveillance and emerging infectious disease. Much of her work has focused on the interplay between biology and human behavior with the goal of developing evidence-based disease models and risk assessments. For DTRA, Ms. Sumner played a critical role in the development of a biosurveillance application that predicts how travel and routes of transmission influence the risk that a disease outbreak abroad will enter and spread throughout the U.S. For HHS, she worked with an international group of public health officials to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of a novel emerging infectious disease outbreak. Continuing her interest in population health, she led a task for DHS focused on understanding how women, children, elderly, and other special populations would be affected following a mass biological exposure event and what steps could be taken to reduce casualties in these groups. She then turned her attention to health services and conducted research on how hospitals and long term care facilities can respond to surges in healthcare needs following an outbreak or attack. Prior to joining Gryphon, Ms. Sumner conducted cancer vaccine research at the University of Virginia, studying pathways to enhance immune cell functions in tumors. Her interest in drug development led to her current role as the director of an ongoing Gryphon project with NIAID that provides researchers developing new drugs with a curated database of potential therapeutics for HIV, tuberculosis, and opportunistic pathogens. Since joining Gryphon, Ms. Sumner has developed a deep understanding of the needs of her federal clients and is a trusted project leader. She holds a B.S. in Biology from the University of Virginia, and is currently pursuing her M.P.H. with a focus in epidemiology at Harvard to further her contributions to public health research and practice.

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Mr. Tim Adams

Tim Adams, M.S., is an experienced health physicist with a particular interest in developing models of radioactive and nuclear effects to inform national security and emergency response plans. Mr. Adams received his B.S. in nuclear engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his M.S. in Radiation Health Physics from Oregon State University. Upon joining Gryphon Scientific in 2013, he designed and executed quantitative risk assessments to measure the human health effects of improvised nuclear and radiological devices. The results were used to inform the contents of CDC’s Strategic National Stockpile, the nation’s largest repository of medicines and supplies for use in responding to public health emergencies. To improve the protection of critical infrastructure following nuclear terrorism, he conducted similar risk assessments designed to investigate the consequences of radioactive fallout on water, power, telecommunications, and other critical industries. For DHHS (BARDA), he developed new models to assess the inhalation risk of radionuclides; he also estimated the consequences of a nuclear detonation to persons taking shelter in a variety of environments, thus informing planning for the severity of injuries in these populations. All these projects gave Mr. Adams a wealth of expertise developing novel tools and models for assessing the risks to national security of radiological and nuclear devices. Frequently serving as a subject matter expert, he contributed advice and support to a FEMA tool for planning response to an improvised nuclear device, and served as a writer and technical expert for the USDA Red Book for the response to radiological emergencies affecting animals and agriculture. Mr. Adams has become a leader and frequently-requested expert with a reputation for developing key insights to improve the nation’s preparedness and response to radiological and nuclear events.

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Dr. Andrew Burnham

Andrew Burnham joined Gryphon Scientific as a Senior Analyst with a background in infectious diseases. His work focuses on providing scientific expertise for analysis of human and animal surveillance data for influenza projects. Andrew previously completed a postdoctoral research fellowship at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, where he worked on understanding the mechanisms of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. His research primarily focused on influenza B virus. He has also worked with H5N1 and emerging H7N9 influenza A viruses in ABSL3+ high containment environments. His research was supported by NIH-funded Centers of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS). Andrew earned his Ph.D. in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology from Indiana University. For his graduate research, he investigated host factors required for replication of arthropod-borne viruses in mammalian and insect host systems. Andrew earned his undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Biology from the Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Dr. Craig Hooper

Dr. Craig Hooper has spent more than a decade studying national security issues and identifying strategic gaps and solutions. During his early career at the Iowa Department of Public Health, he became interested in repairing disconnects between the public health and national security communities. While earning a Ph.D. in Immunology and Infectious Disease from Harvard and serving as a post-doctoral Fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, he focused on methods for quickly deploying public health practitioners into regions threatened by infectious disease, urging the Department of Defense to consider employing militarized car ferries for similar critical missions in uncontested environments. His continued advocacy for military utilization of cost-effective civilian platforms put him on a path from teaching posts at the Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy (University of California-Berkeley) and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey California to the defense industry, where he was recruited to serve as an executive at a militarized ferry-builder, Austal USA. Dr. Hooper joined Gryphon in 2015 to support a range of initiatives in critical infrastructure protection, CBRN threat risk reduction, and national security. Focused on maritime issues, he has supported the U.S. Coast Guard, examining hazardous substance spill response issues and CBRN interdiction challenges. With a talent for identifying emergent national security challenges, Dr. Hooper has published or been quoted in a range of media outlets, warning of America’s fading legacy in the Pacific, America’s disregard for the strategic utility of remote island bases or other overlooked challenges. In 2016-17, he served as co-author of “Restoring American Seapower: A New Fleet Architecture for the United States Navy”. Well received in Washington, Arizona Senator John McCain praised the report as proposing “necessary new strategic, operational, basing and force structure recommendations that deserve immediate consideration by Navy leaders.” As an educator, author, and analyst, Dr. Hooper is a provocative but highly-regarded authority on the defense industry and national security.

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Dr. Froggi (Shawn) Jackson

As a Senior Analyst, Froggi (Shawn) Jackson brings a unique fusion of experience in environmental and biomedical sciences to Gryphon Scientific. Froggi earned a PhD in virology from Harvard University studying HIV vaccine immunology in animal models. She also holds a BS in Biology from Duke University and an MA in Biology from Boston University. These studies focused on marine biology and included time at the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, NC, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. During her postdoctoral fellowships at the University of Maryland Baltimore and the Institute for Marine and Environmental Technology, Froggi studied anti-viral immunology in fish, with emphasis on viruses important to the aquaculture industry, as well as evolutionary aspects of immune cell function in frogs and sharks. Her work was supported by a Kirschstein NRSA award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS) and involved both benchtop and bioinformatics-based research. Froggi also served as a Public Policy Fellow for the American Association of Immunologists and taught college-level introductory biology. Upon leaving academia, she led the development of technical approaches to assessing biomedical innovations for chemical and biological defense in support of the Department of Defense.

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Dr. Mark Kazmierczak

Dr. Mark Kazmierczak is a molecular biologist with expertise in modeling biological threat agents to assess the nation’s risk and vulnerability to infectious disease outbreaks or intentional attacks. With a special interest in threats to food and agricultural safety, Dr. Kazmierczak received his Ph.D. in microbiology from Cornell’s Food Safety Laboratory, pursued post-doctoral research at Harvard Medical School and then served as an FDA Commissioner’s Fellow where he developed a novel diagnostic test to identify strains of salmonella. After joining Gryphon Scientific in 2012, he worked on the requirements for a notional food contamination detection system as well as a vulnerability assessment of critical food additives. Dr. Kazmierczak’s expertise in modeling food contamination events led to a range of other biological modeling assignments. He directed a research team examining biocontainment practices in a Bio and Agro Defense Facility where he modeled the transmission routes of an agricultural pathogen. To inform purchasing decisions for the drugs and medical supplies in CDC’s Strategic National Stockpile, he modeled the transmission of infectious agents as well as the effects of public health response measures. He was a modeling task lead on an assessment of the risks and benefits of research to re-engineer highly pathogenic influenza viruses. All of these projects gave Dr. Kazmierczak a noteworthy depth of experience in risk and vulnerability assessment. Further developing his interest in the use of models to inform policy and operational decisions, Dr. Kazmierczak supported a FEMA workgroup by building an interactive inventory of models and data to inform the response to hurricanes and earthquakes. In a similar vein., he is developing an all hazards risk assessment methodology for protecting critical infrastructure in health care. Starting with a special focus on food safety, Dr. Kazmierczak has become a leader and formidable spokesperson for using modeling to understand threats and vulnerabilities from any source and to make more informed decisions about preparedness and emergency management.

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Dr. Corey Meyer

Corey Meyer, a Senior Analyst at Gryphon Scientific, holds a PhD in Biochemistry from Stanford University and a BA in Chemistry from Harvard University. Prior to joining Gryphon, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Virginia, where she studied mechanisms used by the foodborne pathogen Salmonella to invade intestinal epithelial cells and evade host defenses to cause disease. Her research was supported by a Ruth L. Kirschstein fellowship from NIH. She was also an active member of the UVA Postdoctoral Association and organized several career development events for postdocs across campus. As a graduate student, Corey pursued collaborative research in the area of chromatin biology, with a focus on specialized chromatin domains that regulate genome segregation during cell division. At Gryphon, Corey leads projects in the areas of infectious disease, including risk analysis and assessment of outbreak prevention and response policies, and evaluation of emerging diagnostic technologies.

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Dr. Glen Noble

As Senior Analyst, Glen Noble brings to Gryphon Scientific ten years experience in medicinal chemistry and ten years experience in chemical database management. Glen holds a PhD in Medicinal Chemistry and a BS in Pharmacy from the University of Illinois. After earning his PhD, Glen was recruited to work on developing novel organic synthetic methods at the University of Florida as a Postdoctoral. He received a fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University to work on the development of novel organic compounds as radiotracers useful for mapping receptors by Positron Emission Tomography. The University of Missouri offered him a postdoctoral to develop novel peptidomimetic radiopharmaceuticals. Glen was introduced to chemical database management at Eli Lilly and he refined his skills as registrar at GlaxoSmithKline. Before joining Gryphon Scientific, Glen was providing scientific support for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease’s Anti-HIV/OI/TB database (ChemDB), a chemical structure-based database containing quantitative biological information on compounds tested against HIV and related opportunistic pathogens. Since joining Gryphon, Glen is using his medicinal chemistry and database management skills to assist Dr. Rush and her team in the development of the chemical and biological information contained in ChemDB.

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Dr. Ryan Ritterson

Dr. Ryan Ritterson is a biophysicist whose work has emphasized the assessment of biological threats and risks due to laboratory accidents or deliberate acts of terrorism. With a focus on synthetic biology, Dr. Ritterson received his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of California, San Francisco and has since served on several synthetic biology panels and working groups. He also holds a B.S. in Computational Engineering Science from U.C. Berkeley, which has given him deep knowledge of modeling and data analytics. Since joining Gryphon Scientific in 2015, Dr. Ritterson has led a number of important risk assessments. Notably, this included leading a biosafety risk assessment for Gryphon’s landmark study of the risks and benefits of modified influenza and coronaviruses. Dr. Ritterson’s analysis contained a first-of-its-kind assessment of human error in biological laboratories and significantly influenced the White House’s final policy recommending additional oversight of so-called Gain of Function research that is intended to enhance the transmission or virulence of pathogens of pandemic potential. He has also led efforts to assess risks of emerging biotechnologies and helped to create a framework for assessing both the novel risks these technologies present and the potential ways their application could improve our biosecurity defenses. Turning to his interest in analytics and data visualization, Dr. Ritterson supported FEMA’s data analytics group, serving as a thought-leader on analytical projects designed to improve the agency’s effectiveness and efficiency. These projects applied analytic techniques varying from database analysis to advanced statistical methods. Results were briefed at the highest levels of FEMA leadership and resulted in agency-wide improvements. Through his project work and his continual engagement with the larger scientific community, Dr. Ritterson has become known for his creative analytics and is a sought-after expert on topics in biosecurity, biosafety, and synthetic biology.

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Dr. Gautham Venugopalan

Dr. Gautham Venugopalan is an experienced bioengineering researcher who began to work in global scientific engagement as a graduate student at UC Berkeley, where he co-founded Future Scientist, an international design education non-profit operating in Latin America. After receiving a BS in mechanical engineering from Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and a PhD in Bioengineering from UC Berkeley/San Francisco joint program, he accepted an appointment as an AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of State. There he led efforts to develop U.S. policies for global data sharing and national security that support collaborations between the U.S. and international research communities. Since joining Gryphon Scientific in 2015, he has continued to advance science diplomacy through projects that build biological research capacities in the Middle East and North Africa regions. Through direct engagement with local scientists and by supporting international scientific meetings, Dr. Venugopalan’s work has enhanced awareness of biosafety and biosecurity issues and fostered the development of international scientific networks. A second facet of Dr. Venugopalan’s work involves the use of modeling and other quantitative analytic approaches to inform preparedness planning for public health emergencies. This work builds on his graduate research experience modeling cancer biology processes. Notable efforts at Gryphon include modeling natural and intentional infectious disease outbreaks to inform purchasing decisions for the drugs and medical supplies in the CDC’s Strategic National Stockpile. Dr. Venugopalan also combines his experiences in research, systems engineering, and scientific engagement to develop training curricula for emergency responders. He led the development and testing of a virtual exercise for researchers conducting research during an emergency and has also supported the development of biosafety training curricula for first responders. Whether he has applied his considerable bioengineering skill to training, modeling, or science diplomacy projects, a common goal of his work has been to improve preparedness for natural disasters and infectious disease outbreaks within the U.S. and abroad.

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